Ukraine

Democratic Security Sector Governance

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With a primary focus on defence policy, ministries of defence need to perform a variety of roles in order to implement security policies in a transparent and accountable manner. Given the resource-intensive nature of procurement in defence, ministries of defence, need to be able to procure services transparently, without any interference by corrupt vested interests. Overall, the defence sector requires robust internal management systems to ensure the effective delivery of services, and prevent corruption and the waste of limited financial and human resources.

Human Resources Management

Transparent and effective human resources management provides a robust means for enhancing professionalism among security sector personnel, civilian management and civilian staff. Encouraging effective human resources management by defence ministries and relevant directorates includes the development of transparent salary, promotion and professional development policies; the creation of comprehensive databases for personnel management; the establishment of merit-based recruitment and performance evaluation systems; and the development of an effective salary payment system.[1] Efforts should be made to increase the participation of women in the security sector, as well as facilitate their retention and promotion.

Financial Resources Management

Financial resource management is based on the premise that the defence sector is subject to the same principles of public sector management as other sectors. Budgetary policies need to be transparent in order to ensure they are affordable and complement other government priorities and strategies. Financial resources management should be supported through the development of transparent and accountable procurement systems; the development of efficient auditing systems; and enhancing financial planning and management not only within ministries, but also within the management units of security sector institutions themselves.[2]

Anti-Corruption and Building Integrity

A key issue uniting approaches to human and financial resources management is the need for a strong anti-corruption framework. Transparency and corruption challenges in the defence sphere often affect not only transition states but also established democracies. Building Integrity programming provides a variety of best practices and anti-corruption measures. [3]

Institutional and Programme Management

Within the defence ministry, administrative and programme management enhances accountability and encourages adherence to professional rules and regulations. Effective institutional management at the level of management units, directorates and ministries should be encouraged through policy and planning cycles that reflect national priorities and available resources; developing mechanisms for dealing with the abuse of power; and setting up anti-corruption mechanisms and disciplinary measures. Internal accountability mechanisms should be established and enforced.

Rules and Procedures

Defence ministries need to ensure that each component of the military has a clear set of enforceable rules and procedures to govern its personnel’s behaviour. Whilst all security personnel remain subject to the jurisdiction of criminal and civil courts, internal regulations provide a way for the management to enforce discipline internally for misdemeanours or failure to adhere to (as per military law) internal regulations.

Codes of Conduct

Defence ministries need to ensure that each component of the military adheres to codes of conduct formulated at national and international levels. A variety of codes of conduct have an impact on the work of security sector institutions, covering issues such as integrity and anti-corruption; codes of ethics for law enforcement and intelligence personnel. Whilst codes of conduct are not a substitute for the enforcement of rules, procedures, or civil and criminal law, they can engender greater transparency and accountability, as well as a highly developed understanding of and sensitivity to the obligations and duties of a professional working in the security field. In this way they must also be clear and understandable for the general public, as well.

Resources

Hari Bucur-Marcu, Philipp Fluri, Todor Tagarev, Defence Management: An Introduction, (Sofia: Procon, 2009)

Valeri Ratchev, Civilianisation of the Defence Ministry: A Functional Approach to a Modern Defence Institutions, 2011.

Todor Tagarev (ed.), Building Integrity and Reducing Corruption in Defence, (Sofia: Procon, 2010)

Mark Pyman, Anne-Christine Wegener, Building Integrity and Reducing Corruption in Defence and Security: 20 Practical Reforms, (Transparency International DSP: 2011).

UNDP and World Bank, Security Sector Expenditure Review Sourcebook, (forthcoming 2016).

[1] Hari Bucur-Marcu, Philipp Fluri, Todor Tagarev, Defence Management: An Introduction, (Sofia: Procon, 2009)

[2] See, for example, UNDP and World Bank, Security Sector Expenditure Review Sourcebook, (forthcoming 2016).

[3] See Todor Tagarev (ed.), Building Integrity and Reducing Corruption in Defence, (Sofia: Procon, 2010) and Mark Pyman, Anne-Christine Wegener, Building Integrity and Reducing Corruption in Defence and Security: 20 Practical Reforms, (Transparency International DSP: 2011),

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