Ukraine

Democratic Security Sector Governance

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Human Rights and the Security Sector

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a core document on human rights. The Declaration was decreed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on the 10th of December 1948.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) was created to promote and protect Human Rights. OHCHR provides a forum for identifying, highlighting and developing responses to today’s human rights challenges, and acts as the principal focal point of human rights research, education, public information, and advocacy activities in the United Nations system.

UNDP-OHCHR Toolkit for Collaboration with National Human Rights Institutions (2010)

The Toolkit identifies good practices and supports strategies for projects aimed at aiding organisational development and capacity assessment generally, with a focus on the two substantive areas of NHRI work:

  • Protection mandate: investigations, effective complaints handling strategies, alternative dispute and conflict resolution (at both the individual and community levels), public inquiries and monitoring.
  • Promotion mandate: good practices in public education, media relations, advice and assistance to government, reports, policy development, and programs of cooperation that can “leverage” resources and achieve a broader impact.

Working with the United Nations Human Rights Programme: A Handbook for Civil Society is addressed to the civil society actors who, every day in every part of the world, contribute to the promotion, protection and advancement of human rights. Developed following a survey among users of the first edition of the Handbook, Working with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: A Handbook for NGOs (2006), this comprehensively updated and revised second edition puts United Nations human rights bodies and mechanisms at its centre. Speaking to all civil society actors, including, but not only, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the Handbook explains how civil society can engage with various United Nations human rights bodies and mechanisms.

OHCHR (1997), International Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement: A Pocket Book on Human Rights for the Police.

This “pocket book” is designed to provide a readily accessible and portable reference for police committed to the lawful and humane performance of their vital functions in a democratic society. The pocket book contains hundreds of relevant standards, reduced to common language and point-form, and drawn from over thirty international sources.

Respect of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and, in particular, the judgement of the European Court of Human Rights, is a crucial element of the Council of Europe’s system for the protection of human rights, rule of law and democracy and, hence, for democratic stability in European states.

Also see European Court of Human Rights Database

Rights Info is a website focused on bringing human rights to life using infographics, stories and social media. Rights Info is about using social media to find new ways to talk about and deliver human rights stories and information. Rights Info contributes to raising awareness about why human rights matter and how they can change people’s lives.

 

The Association for the Prevention of Torture (APT) works for a torture-free world, where the rights and dignity of all persons deprived of liberty are respected. APT’s mission is to lead and support endeavours to prevent torture and ill-treatment. APT focuses on:

  1. Strengthening legal and policy frameworks so that torture and other forms of ill-treatment are criminalised and safeguards are in place.
  2. Improving detention practices to reduce the risk of torture and ill-treatment in police custody and increase protection of all detained persons, particularly those in specific situations of vulnerability.
  3. Strengthening public oversight, through increased transparency in places of detention and a strong and effective OPCAT system.

ODIHR is tasked with assisting OSCE-participating States to ensure full respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; to abide by the rule of law; to promote principles of democracy; to build, strengthen, and protect democratic institutions; and to promote tolerance throughout their societies. The Office also plays an important role in enhancing dialogue among States, governments, and civil society. The ODIHR organizes the yearly OSCE Human Dimension Implementation Meeting, three supplementary meetings and a seminar, which review governments’ progress and give NGOs a platform to freely voice their concerns.

Youth for Human Rights International (YHRI) is a non-profit organization founded in 2001 by Dr. Mary Shuttleworth, an educator born and raised in apartheid South Africa. The purpose of YHRI is to teach youth about human rights, specifically the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and inspire them to become advocates for tolerance and peace.

United for Human Rights (UHR) is an international, not-for-profit organization dedicated to implementing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights at the local, regional, national, and international levels. UHR’s membership is comprised of individuals, educators, and groups throughout the world who are actively forwarding the knowledge and protection of human rights. Its purpose is to provide human rights educational resources and activities that inform, assist, and unite individuals, educators, organisations, and governmental bodies in the dissemination and adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights at every level of society.

The International Justice Resource Center (IJRC) provides advocates, civil society organizations, and victims of human rights abuses with the information and resources they need to effectively use international legal protections, including advocacy before human rights monitoring bodies and complaints before international and domestic courts, to bring about justice and accountability for human rights violations. IJRC provides educational materials, training workshops, and advice to individuals and groups around the world.

FIDH is an international human rights NGO federating 178 organizations from 120 countries. Since 1922, FIDH has been defending all civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights as set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. FIDH acts at national, regional, and international levels in support of its member and partner organisations to address human rights abuses and consolidate democratic processes. FIDH’s work is directed at States and those in power, such as armed opposition groups and multinational corporations. FIDH’s primary beneficiaries are national human rights organisations who are members of FIDH and, through them, the victims of human rights violations. FIDH also cooperates with other local partner organisations and actors of change.

Paris Principles (resolution 48/134) are principles relating to the Status of National Human Rights Institutions. They were adopted by the General Assembly on 20th of December, 1993.

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The International Coordinating Committee for National Human Rights Institutions (ICC) is the international association of national human rights institutions (NHRIs) from all parts of the globe, established in 1993. The Committee promotes and strengthens NHRIs to be in accordance with the Paris Principles and provides leadership in the promotion and protection of human rights.

The ICC:

  • Facilitates and supports NHRI engagement with the UN Human Rights Council and Treaty Bodies
  • Encourages cooperation and information-sharing among NHRIs, including through an annual meeting and biennial conference
  • Undertakes accreditation of NHRIs in accordance with the Paris Principles
  • Promotes the role of NHRIs within the United Nations and with States and other international agencies
  • Offers capacity-building in collaboration with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCR)
  • Assists NHRIs under threat
  • If requested, can assist governments to establish NHRIs

Regional NHRI Networks and Forums

  • European Group of National Human Rights Institutions
  • Asia Pacific Forum
  • Network of African Human Rights Institutions
  • Network of National Institutions for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights in the Americas
  • Commonwealth Forum of National Human Rights Institutions
  • Arab-European Human Rights Dialogue

 

The Raoul Wallenberg Institute’s NHRI Database holds over 1 500 documents relating to National Human Rights Institutions. These documents are materials produced by NHRIs themselves (annual reports, thematic guides and studies, national inquiries, etc.) and UN documents, or scholarly articles related to National Human Rights Institutions. The objective of the Database is to make NHRI materials available to a wider audience and to generally promote the work of NHRIs around the world. The database also allows NHRIs to share best practices and for scholars and researchers to access relevant documents.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: 10 Basic Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement Officials

These ‘10 Basic Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement Officials’ were prepared by Amnesty

International in association with police officials and experts from different countries. They are based on United Nations law enforcement, criminal justice and human rights standards. This document is intended to raise awareness amongst government officials, parliamentarians, journalists, and non-governmental organizations of some fundamental standards which should be part of any police training and police practice.

Human Rights in Ukraine

This is the Amnesty international webpage dedicated to Ukraine.

This is a UNDP information and resources portal created in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark.

This is the Freedom House webpage dedicated to Ukraine.

This is the Human Rights Watch page dedicated to Ukraine. See also Human Rights Watch World Report 2015: Ukraine

Key document on Human Rights in Ukraine: Ukraine National Action Plan on Human Rights approved through the Decree of the President of Ukraine #501/2015

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Gender and Security Sector

The Toolkit is an initial response to the need for information and analysis on gender and SSR. The Toolkit is designed to provide policymakers and practitioners with a practical introduction to why gender issues are important in SSR and what can be done to integrate them. Each SSR context is unique. As such, the strategies and recommendations provided in the Toolkit may not always be directly applicable and should always be adapted to the local context.

In order to support the drive for gender-responsive SSR, the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE/ODIHR), and the United Nations International Research and Training Institution for the Advancement of Women (UN-INSTRAW, now part of UN Women) published a Toolkit on Gender and Security Sector Reform in February 2008.

These training resources are a companion to the SSR and Gender Toolkit. They are designed for SSR trainers and educators to help you present material on gender and SSR in an interesting and interactive manner. The Gender and SSR Training Resource Package contains a wide range of exercises, discussion topics, and examples from the ground that you can adapt and integrate into your SSR training. Gender trainers working with the security sector will also find the content useful.

The Handbook aims to (a) strengthen the ability to integrate gender in professional military education and (b) improve the capacity of gender experts to deliver educational content. The Handbook aims to cover both ‘what to teach’ and ‘how to teach’ in reference to gender and the role it plays in the military.

This Handbook synthesizes knowledge and experience regarding the prevention of misconduct, and handling and monitoring of complaints within armed forces, with particular regard to gender. This Handbook is a resource for armed forces, ministries of defence, Ombuds institutions and others that manage and oversee armed forces in:

  • establishing a safe and non-discriminatory environment for men and women in the armed forces;
  • dealing with instances and complaints of gender-related discrimination, harassment, bullying, and abuse in the armed forces; and
  • monitoring and overseeing the handling of instances and complaints of gender-related discrimination, harassment, bullying and abuse in the armed forces

The self-assessment guide leads users through an eight-stage assessment process of a security sector institution. Users are then encouraged to create an action plan to move the organisation forward, and monitor and evaluate the plan’s implementation. The assessment collects information across 16 “dimensions” of gender responsiveness grouped into the following themes:

  • Performance effectiveness
  • Laws, policies, and planning
  • Community relations
  • Accountability and oversight
  • Personnel
  • Institutional culture

Designed as a complement to the DCAF, OSCE/ODIHR, UN-INSTRAW Gender and Security Sector Reform Toolkit, and DCAF’s Gender Self-Assessment Guide, the guidance notes focus on integrating gender into systems and processes within police services and armed forces. In order to further prioritise gender, the guidance notes equip external oversight bodies, such as Ombuds institutions and national human rights institutions.

Security Sector Oversight

DCAF, Inter-Parliamentary Union (2003), Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector

Parliaments have a vital role to play in the good governance of the security sector and the provision of transparent and accountable public security. This handbook is divided into eight sections, each containing several chapters and can be read in two different ways. A complete reading of the Handbook will provide the most comprehensive understanding of security issues and the role of parliamentary oversight. However, it is also possible to make a selective reading of those sections and chapters which are of particular concern to the user. The index and various cross-references are designed for this purpose. Throughout the Handbook, there are separate boxes which clarify complex issues in the main text, provide examples of laws or regulations, and highlight practices of parliamentary oversight of the security sector in various countries. At the end of most chapters, there is a section called — “what you can do as a parliamentarian,” where concrete recommendations are given. However, these recommendations must be observed from the national context.

DCAF, NATO (2015),Oversight and Guidance: Parliaments and Security Sector Governance

This third version of the DCAF-NATO PA ‘Vademecum’ underlines the essential role that parliaments must play in ensuring democratic oversight of the security sector. Updating key information on best practices related to parliamentary oversight and guidance of the security sector, the volume retains a special focus on defence affairs and puts the oversight role of parliament into political and military contexts. Aimed at democratic institutions within NATO partner-countries, it provides an introduction to the overarching principles of security sector reform and key oversight mechanisms and best practices.

Hans Born (2013), Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector

This paper represents a further addition to the series of publications on issues in parliamentary practice from the Office for Promotion of Parliamentary Democracy (OPPD). The main objective of this publication is to provide an overview of the main issues affecting parliamentary oversight and, more generally, democratic governance of the security sector in new and emerging democracies.

DCAF, UNDP (2008), Public Oversight of the Security Sector. A Handbook for Civil Society Organzations 

This Handbook provides structured guidance for civil society organisations (CSOs) on the role they can play in democratic security sector oversight. Although many CSOs have facilitated security sector reform processes in transition and post-conflict states, much of their potential remains untapped. Similarly, the longer term role CSOs play in maintaining a democratically-managed security sector is sometimes under-emphasised in the developed and developing worlds. The Handbook is designed primarily for civil society and non-governmental organisations. This Handbook is also relevant to democratic institutions, democratic representatives, policymakers, SSR practitioners, researchers, security sector institutions, the media, and international organisations partnering with CSOs on democratic security governance issues.

DCAF (2015), Training Manual on Police Integrity

The Training Manual on Police Integrity aims to assist ministries of interior, police services and training institutions in developing their capacities to deliver integrity training to their staff. The Manual also provides guidance on how to build and sustain organizational integrity through effective planning and management of human resources and reform processes.

DCAF (2012), Toolkit on Police Integrity

The Toolkit on Police Integrity aims to assist police services in designing effective measures to curb police corruption, increase their ability to fight crime, improve public security, and strengthen the rule of law and public trust in the police. The Toolkit contains chapters covering a range of topics, such as corruption and policing, supporting police officers facing ethical questions, internal control, external oversight and control, and capacity building.

Born Hans, Wills Aidan, (2012), Overseeing Intelligence Services: a Toolkit

DCAF’s toolkit on overseeing intelligence services is a compendium of booklets (tools) that provides policy-relevant information on the establishment and consolidation of independent bodies to oversee state organisations involved in the collection, analysis, production and dissemination of intelligence in the national security domain.

Council of Europe (2015), Issue Paper on Democratic and Effective Oversight of National Security Services

With the permission of the Council of Europe, DCAF has translated the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights’ May 2015 Issue Paper on Democratic and effective oversight of national security services’ (link to original source here) into several languages, some of which, including the English original, are available below. This issue paper focuses on the oversight of state bodies, including both autonomous agencies anddepartments/units of other government departments or the armed forces, that have a mandate to collect, analyse and disseminate intelligence within the borders of their state in order to inform decisions by policy makers, military commanders, police investigators and border/customs agencies about threats to national security and other core national interests. The Paper also includes a number of recommendations on the basis of the issues raised by this issue paper formulated by the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights.

For further information on the Council of Europe and its publications please visit their web-site here.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Understanding Intelligence Oversight

This guidebook provides an introduction on how democratic states govern their intelligence services. The guidebook demonstrates how states can govern their intelligence services in order to make sure that:

  • They contribute effectively to the security of the state and its population,
  • They are subject to democratic control,
  • They are accountable to the populations they serve, and
  • They respect the rule of law and human rights.

The guidebook provides short and simple answers to frequently asked questions on the activities of intelligence services, as well as the control and oversight of these organisations.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Compilation of Good Practices for Intelligence Agencies and their Oversight

The Compilation of Good Practices within the Security Sector Toolkit highlights the legal and institutional frameworks and measures that ensure respect for human rights by intelligence agencies while countering terrorism. The toolkit also identifies international standards for intelligence governance.

Hans Born, Ian Leigh (2005), Making Intelligence Accountable: Legal Standards and Practice for Oversight of Intelligence Agencies

This publication classifies and evaluates the legal standards that currently exist regarding democratic accountability of intelligence services. The publication also identifies and recommends best practice applicable to both transition countries and well-established democracies.

DCAF (2015), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit:  International Standards for Financial Oversight in the Security Sector

This Toolkit provides readers with easy access to internationally-adopted guiding principles, standards and best practices of financial oversight of security sector institutions. The Toolkit allows readers to:

  • Access key international standards on budgeting and auditing in the security sector;
  • Compare existing practices and regulations in their countries with universally-accepted budgeting and auditing principles;
  • Use the international standards as a basis for proposals to political leaders and members of parliament for reforming the prevailing financial oversight system in the security sectors of their countries;
  • Monitor and evaluate the performance of financial accountability institutions against international best practice.

 DCAF (2015), Financial Oversight of the Security Sector a Toolkit for Trainers

This Toolkit is designed for financial oversight practitioners who wish to:

  • Gain access to best international practices in financial oversight of the security sector
  • Improve their professional ability to financially oversee security sector institutions
  • Acquire a more proactive attitude towards conducting thorough financial oversight activities of security sector institutions
  • Assert their authority in scrutinizing budgets and financial operations conducted by security sector institutions.

European Partners against Corruption, European contact point network against corruption (2011), Anti-Corruption Authority Standards

This document lists ten guiding principles and parameters on the notion of independence of Anti-Corruption bodies. These principles and standards are intended to be aspirational for, rather than legally binding on, organisations. They recognise that there are many different approaches across the world and are, thus, intended to be responsive to the legal and policy frameworks established in individual countries and organisations.

 

NATO-DCAF, (2010). Building Integrity and Reducing Corruption in Defence. A Compendium of Best Practices

This compendium is the product of cooperation between Transparency International UK, the NATO Program for Peace team, and DCAF. The compendium focuses on concepts and tools which ensure good practices in defence management and policy through “integrity building.” Designed primarily as an introduction and reference tool, defence personnel, civilians in the defence sphere, democratic institutions, and civil society will also find materials on building integrity and anti-corruption measures which are relevant to their own security governance activities.

OECD, UNODC, The World Bank, (2013), Anti-corruption ethics and compliance Handbook for Business 

The Handbook has been developed to serve as a useful, practical tool for companies seeking compliance advice in one, easy-to-reference publication. The Handbook is divided into three sections. The first section provides an overview of the international anti-corruption framework, within which companies conducting international business must operate. The second section provides a brief introduction to how companies can assess their risk in order to begin developing an effective anti-corruption ethics and compliance programme. The third and most significant section brings together major business guidance instruments.

OECD (2010), Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance

This Good Practice Guidance is addressed to companies for establishing and ensuring the effectiveness of internal controls, ethics, and compliance programmes or measures for preventing and detecting the bribery of foreign public officials in their international business transactions. Guidelines are also addressed to business organisations and professional associations which play an essential role in assisting companies in these efforts. The publication recognises that to be effective, such programmes, or measures, should be interconnected with a company’s overall compliance framework. This publication is intended to serve as non-legally binding guidance to companies in establishing effective internal controls, ethics, and compliance programmes or measures for preventing and detecting foreign bribery.

OECD (2008), OECD Glossaries. Corruption. A Glossary of International Standards in Criminal Law

This Glossary explains the key elements required to classify corruption as a criminal act, according to three major international conventions: the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions; the Council of Europe’s Criminal Law Convention on Corruption; the United Nation’s Convention against Corruption. The specific purpose of this Glossary is to assist the countries of the OECD Anti-Corruption Network for Eastern Europe and Central Asia in their efforts to reform national anti-corruption criminal legislation according to the requirements of the above-mentioned conventions. This tool seeks to remedy the lack of knowledge about international law and recent developments in international treaties that some national legislators may face. This glossary should be useful for legal practitioners in any country that aims to strengthen international cooperation and domestic rules to fight corruption.

This handbook is a reference guide on available legal tools, the latest legislative and policy trends, and pertinent measures and practices to prevent and suppress corruption. The handbook is aimed at raising awareness of the range of international instruments available to national policymakers and anti-corruption practitioners.

These guidelines provide OSCE staff with advice on supporting cross-dimensional approaches to security sector governance and reform (SSG/R). The purpose of such approaches is to promote a move away from the kind of fragmented support which has a limited impact and towards the practice of building on cross-dimensional synergies. This is done in order to provide coherent and effective support for the pursuit of common strategic SSG/R objectives. While the guidelines are designed for the use of OSCE staff, they may also be of relevance to other national and international actors seeking to enhance their support in the field of SSG/R.

UN Inter-Agency SSR Task Force, Security Sector Reform Integrated Technical Guidance Notes

The UN SSR Integrated Technical Guidance Notes are a useful tool for anyone interested in Security Sector Reform and Democratic Security Sector Governance. The purpose of the Integrated Technical Guidance Notes (ITGNs) is therefore to foster a “One United Nations” approach to SSR by providing a common framework to guide United Nations support to nationally led SSR efforts.

Independent Oversight Institutions

The aim of ICOAF is to establish best practice and lessons learned related to the mandate, powers and functioning of these institutions. The initiative also reaches out to states that do not have an Ombuds institution for the military but have expressed an interest to learn from experiences from other states.

A list of legislation and legislative tools relevant to National Human Rights Institutions in Ukraine can be found here.

Intelligence Oversight

Born Hans, Wills Aidan, DCAF-Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands (2012), Overseeing Intelligence Services: a Toolkit

DCAF’s toolkit on overseeing intelligence services is a compendium of booklets (tools) that provides policy-relevant information on the establishment and consolidation of independent bodies to oversee state organisations involved in the collection, analysis, production and dissemination of intelligence in the national security domain.

 DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Understanding Intelligence Oversight

This guidebook provides an introduction on how democratic states govern their intelligence services. The guidebook demonstrates how states can govern their intelligence services in order to make sure that:

  • They contribute effectively to the security of the state and its population,
  • They are subject to democratic control,
  • They are accountable to the populations they serve, and
  • They respect the rule of law and human rights.

The guidebook provides short and simple answers to frequently asked questions on the activities of intelligence services, as well as the control and oversight of these organisations.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Compilation of Good Practices for Intelligence Agencies and their Oversight

The Compilation of Good Practices within the Security Sector Toolkit highlights the legal and institutional frameworks and measures that ensure respect for human rights by intelligence agencies while countering terrorism. The toolkit also identifies international standards for intelligence governance.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: The Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act

This booklet contains the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act in its original form as well as the provisions of this legislation which are reorganised by topic. This allows lawmakers to easily identify the specific subjects that should be covered by legislation on intelligence services and compare different laws according to particular topics.

 DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: The Netherlands Intelligence and Security Services Act

This booklet contains the Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act in its original form as well as the provisions of this legislation which are reorganised by topic. This allows lawmakers to easily identify the specific subjects that should be covered by legislation on intelligence services and compare different laws according to particular topics.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: The Argentinian National Intelligence Law

This booklet contains The Argentinian National Intelligence Law, 2001 and the Regulation of the National Intelligence Act, 2002 in its original form as well as the provisions of this legislation which are reorganised by topic. This allows lawmakers to easily identify the specific subjects that should be covered by legislation on intelligence services and compare different laws according to particular topics.

Hans Born, Ian Leigh (2005), Making Intelligence Accountable: Legal Standards and Practice for Oversight of Intelligence Agencies

This publication classifies and evaluates the legal standards that currently exist regarding the democratic accountability of intelligence services. The publication also identifies and recommends best practices applicable to both transition countries and well-established democracies.

The toolkit contains a number of booklets that provide norms and standards, guidebooks as well as practical examples of model laws in various areas of security sector legislation. This toolkit is primarily addressed to all those who intend to create new or develop existing security sector legislation. This includes parliamentarians, civil servants, legal experts and nongovernmental organisations. The toolkit may also be helpful to security officials and, as a reference tool, to researchers and students interested in security sector legislation.

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This is the UNDP web portal on democratic governance and peacebuilding. The portal contains information on key areas of UNDP’s rule of law and human rights work and provides tools and resources as well as useful links to other topics related to security sector governance.

Military Justice

DCAF (2011) Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Understanding Military Justice

The objective of this guide is to provide readers with essential information about the function and principles of military justice in a democratic society. The guide also focuses on policies and the role of different stakeholders in shaping legal and institutional frameworks for an effective and transparent system of military justice. This toolkit provides an overview of different military justice systems and outlines the challenges they face.

DCAF (2011) Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Principles Governing the Administration of Justice through Military Tribunals

This publication contains the 20 Principles Governing the Administration of Justice through Military Tribunals as outlined by the Commission on Human Rights.

DCAF (2011) Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: The South African Military Discipline Supplementary Measures Act

This booklet contains the South African Military Discipline Supplementary Measures Act in its original form as well as its articles reorganised by topic. This allows legislators to easily identify the specific subjects that need to be covered in such a law and compare the different models of laws.

DCAF (2011) Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: The Colombian Military Criminal Code

This booklet contains the Colombian military criminal code reorganised by topic. This allows legislators to easily identify the specific topics that need to be covered in such a law and compare between different models of laws.

Security Sector Governance

Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA) is the Swedish government agency for peace, security and development. The Academy has the overall mission to support international peace and crisis management operations. In the area of Security Sector Reform, FBA offers:

  • Policy, research and development
    The FBA offers support to the work of the EU, UN and OSCE on SSR policy development. The FBA has developed a tool for SSR needs assessmentand a handbook for SSR advisers. In addition, the FBA supports international research on SSR.
  • Training
    The FBA offers a yearly SSR courseas well as courses within the orbit of the European Security and Defence College. Furthermore, the FBA offers tailor-made SSR training on demand.
  • International work
    The FBA seconds SSR experts to international peace missions.
  • Cooperation 
    The FBA coordinates a network of Swedish government agencies working on issues related to SSR. It also represents Sweden on the board of the International Security Sector Advisory Team (ISSAT).

The aim of ICOAF is to establish best practice and lessons learned related to the mandate, powers and functioning of these institutions. The initiative also reaches out to states that do not have an Ombuds institution for the military but have expressed an interest to learn from experiences from other states.

OSCE Polis is a digital library bringing together all aspects of international assistance in the areas of border security, counter terrorism, cyber security and policing, and wider law enforcement issues. OSCE Polis is a knowledge management tool created in response to the needs of the OSCE field operations staff involved in law enforcement activities and provides:

  • Information resources — a repository of information on all policing-related activities previously or presently being undertaken in OSCE field operations. It identifies lessons learned, good practice and external sources of specialized knowledge;
  • Experts Database — a database of international law enforcement experts available for short-term assignments, needs assessments, new mission start-up planning or inspections;
  • Events Calendar — a section where all policing-related events, organized by the OSCE institutions and field operations are advertised, accompanied by relevant materials. The Events Calendar is closely interlinked with the Digital Library providing access to the related documents.

POLIS is an on-line resource centre for police and law enforcement officers, policy analysts, policy makers, evaluation experts, and donors in the field of policing and rule of law, helping them to plan reforms and access feedback on existing initiatives.

The United Nation’s Inter-Agency Task Force on Security Sector Reform (IASSRTF) brings together all UN agencies working on security sector governance issues. The Task Force was established by the Secretary-General of the United Nations in 2007 to promote an integrated, holistic and coherent United Nations security sector reform (SSR) approach that envisages assisting States and societies in establishing effective, inclusive and accountable security institutions so as to contribute to international peace and security, sustainable development and the enjoyment of human rights by all.

The Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) has been assisting in the reform of individual components of the security sector, such as police services, for decades.
Since 2007, DPKO has focused on supporting those efforts at the strategic level and in a holistic way, across all components.
DPKO’s Security Sector Reform Unit (SSRU), part of the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions, is the SSR focal point and technical capacity for the UN system as well as for national and international partners. The unit has responsibility for:

  • providing political, strategic and technical assistance to peace operations involved in supporting national SSR efforts;
  • supporting senior UN leaders to ensure SSR is integrated into the UN’s overall work;
  • Acting as a global centre of excellence through the development of guidance and international norms;
  • Developing SSR partnerships for the UN.

Transparency and Accountability Initiative (T/A Initiative) is a donor collaborative working to expand the impact and scale of transparency, accountability and participation interventions.

This publication focuses on practical aspects of democratic defence management through the eyes of practitioners. Outlining in simple terms the key issues defence professionals must address to ensure good governance of the defence sector from within the defence establishment, the book provides an introduction to these issues for new defence professionals in transition democracies. The objective is to explain principles and approaches to formulating and implementing security and defence policies, presenting results of policy-related research, and providing examples of good practice in transforming and managing security sector organisations, organisational processes and resources. Intended audience includes practitioners from the legislative and executive branches of government, security and defence professionals and civil society organisations engaged in making security and defence organisations more transparent, accountable, effective and efficient.

Security Sector Governance and Law Enforcement

DCAF (2015), Training Manual on Police Integrity

The Training Manual on Police Integrity aims to assist ministries of interior, police services and training institutions in developing their capacities to deliver integrity training to their staff. The Manual also provides guidance on how to build and sustain organizational integrity through effective planning and management of human resources and reform processes.

DCAF (2012), Toolkit on Police Integrity

The Toolkit on Police Integrity aims to assist police services in designing effective measures to curb police corruption, increase their ability to fight crime, improve public security, and strengthen the rule of law and public trust in the police. The Toolkit contains chapters covering a range of topics, such as corruption and policing, supporting police officers facing ethical questions, internal control, external oversight and control, and capacity building.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: The European Code of Police Ethics

This toolkit contains the European Code of Police Ethics accompanied by commentaries and recommendations. The European Code of Police Ethics together with the Guidebook on Democratic Policing (OSCE) and the Ten Basic Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement Officials (Amnesty International) can be considered as the main framework of international norms and standards for democratic policing.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: 10 Basic Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement Officials

These ‘10 Basic Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement Officials’ were prepared by Amnesty International in conjunction with police officials and experts from different countries. They are based on United Nations law enforcement, criminal justice and human rights standards. This document is intended to raise awareness amongst government officials, parliamentarians, journalists and non-governmental organizations of some fundamental standards which should be part of any police training and police practice.

 DCAF (2009), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: International Police Standards guidebook on Democratic Policing

This toolkit contains international standards and principles of democratic policing. The guidebook is designed to assist OSCE staff dealing with police and law-enforcement issues as well as police practitioners and policy-makers working to develop and strengthen democratic policing. The guidebook serves as a reference to good policing practices and internationally adopted standards. This publication articulates the objectives of democratic police services and forces, the importance of their commitment to the rule of law, policing ethics, and human rights standards, the essential nature of police accountability to the law and to the society which they serve, and the need for their cooperation with the communities, recognizing that effective policing requires partnership with the communities being served. Furthermore, the guidebook elaborates on structural and managerial aspects within the police necessary in achieving and sustaining democratic policing.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Police Legislation Model: The Swedish Police Act

This booklet contains the Swedish police law in its original form as well as its articles reorganised by topic. This allows legislators to easily identify the specific topics that need to be covered in a police law and compare the different models.

 

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Police Legislation Model: The Japanese Police Law and The Police Duties Execution Law

This booklet contains the Japanese police legislation in its original form as well as its articles reorganised by topic. This allows legislators to easily identify the specific topics that need to be covered in a police law and compare between different models of laws.

 

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Police Legislation Model: Republic of South Africa Police Service Act 68, 1995

This booklet contains the South African Military Discipline Supplementary Measures Act in its original form as well as its articles reorganised by topic. This allows legislators to easily identify the specific subjects that need to be covered in such a law and compare the different models of laws.

 

  OHCHR (1997), International Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement: A Pocket Book on Human Rights for the Police

This “pocket book” is designed to provide a readily accessible and portable reference for police committed to the lawful and humane performance of their vital functions in a democratic society. The pocket book contains hundreds of relevant standards, reduced to common language and point-form, and drawn from over thirty international sources.

 

OSCE police operations are an integral part of the Organization’s efforts in conflict prevention and post-conflict rehabilitation. OSCE’s police-related activities focus on challenges posed by trans-national and organized crime, by trafficking in drugs, arms and human beings, failure to uphold the rule of law, and by human rights violations. Activities include police education and training, community policing, and administrative and structural reforms. Many OSCE field operations run their own programmes on police reform and development.

UNODC is a global leader in the fight against illicit drugs and international crime. Established in 1997 through a merger between the United Nations Drug Control Programme and the Centre for International Crime Prevention, UNODC operates in all regions of the world through an extensive network of field offices. UNODC mainly provides:

  • Field-based technical cooperation projects to enhance the capacity of Member States to counteract illicit drugs, crime and terrorism
  • Research and analytical work to increase knowledge and understanding of drugs and crime issues and expand the evidence base for policy and operational decisions
  • Normative work to assist States in the ratification and implementation of the relevant international treaties, the development of domestic legislation on drugs, crime and terrorism, and the provision of secretariat and substantive services to the treaty-based and governing bodies.

The SHERLOC knowledge management portal is a tool designed to facilitate the dissemination of information regarding the implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime and its protocols. In this portal, national examples of anti-corruption laws can be found, as well as tools for enhancing international cooperation in the fight against corruption and organised crime, along with other useful resources. The portal hosts a case law database, a database of legislation, a bibliographic database, and a directory of national competent authorities. The case law database contains jurisprudence on corruption, counterfeiting, cybercrime, drug offences, money laundering, obstruction of justice, participation in an organized criminal group, piracy, smuggling of migrants, trafficking in firearms, trafficking in cultural property, wildlife and forest crime, trafficking in persons and other crimes. The database of legislation is an electronic repository of laws relevant to the provisions of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC). The bibliographic database is an annotated bibliography containing a synopsis of key articles that are searchable by countries, research methods and keywords. The directory contains the contact information of competent national authorities authorized to receive, respond to and process requests of assistance for matters related to organised crime.

The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative (StAR) is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime that supports international efforts to end safe havens for corrupt funds. StAR works with developing countries and financial centres to prevent the laundering of the proceeds of corruption and to facilitate a more systematic and timely return of stolen assets.

StAR works with and helps bring together governments, regulatory authorities, donor agencies, financial institutions, and civil society organizations, fostering collective responsibility and action for deterrence, detection and recovery of stolen assets.

Security Sector Governance and Media

IWPR supports local reporters, citizen journalists and civil society activists in three dozen countries in conflict, crisis and transition around the world. They contribute to peace and good governance by strengthening the ability of media and civil society to speak out. IWPR provides training, mentoring and platforms for professional and citizen reporters; builds up the institutional capacity of media and civic groups; and works with independent and official partners to remove barriers to free expression and to foster public debate and citizen engagement.

Open Data in Europe and Central Asia (ODECA) is a platform to support government representatives, civil society activists, tech activists and citizens that care about and work with open data.

The network covers 18 countries in the region and aims to stimulate innovation, knowledge sharing and learning among practitioners and aficionados of open data regionally and globally.

Security Sector Legislation

The Venice Commission adopted the Rule of Law Checklist. The Checklist aims to enable an objective, thorough, transparent and equal assessment of the respect of the Rule of Law in a given country. Actors wishing to assess the respect of the Rule of Law in a country now have a reliable tool for doing so. This includes parliaments and other State authorities, civil society and international organisations.

 

 

The goal of Interpeace’s Constitution-Making for Peace Programme is to support constitution-making processes that leads to a more durable peace. The programme promotes the principles of local ownership, inclusion, gender equality, participation and transparency. The programme highlights options for the constitution-making process so that the process contributes to national dialogue, consensus-building, greater social and political cohesion, conflict management, reconciliation and the strengthening of democratic principles, institutions and the rule of law.

The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA) is an intergovernmental organization that supports sustainable democracy worldwide. International IDEA’s mission is to support sustainable democratic change by providing comparative knowledge, and assisting in democratic reform, and influencing policies and politics.

This is a database containing an extract from the NATO Standardization Document Database (NSDD) showing only the current (promulgated) documents. The NATO Standardization Office (NSO) is an independent NATO Office that reports to the Committee for Standardization (CS) Policy and Management and to the Military Committee (MC) for corporate oversight and issues relating to operational standardization. The mission of the NSO is to provide Standardization Management for NATO. Standardization Management encompasses in particular standardization policy; harmonization of NATO standardization activities; rules and regulations for development, ratification, promulgation, and support to implementation of standardization products; standardization management support to Tasking Authorities; terminology policy and guidelines, cooperation with civilian standardization bodies; publishing of NATO standards and standardization promotion.

The toolkit contains a number of booklets that provide norms and standards, guidebooks as well as practical examples of model laws in various areas of security sector legislation. This toolkit is primarily addressed to all those who intend to create new or develop existing security sector legislation. This includes parliamentarians, civil servants, legal experts and nongovernmental organisations. The toolkit may also be helpful to security officials and, as a reference tool, to researchers and students interested in security sector legislation.

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DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: The European Code of Police Ethics

This toolkit contains the European Code of Police Ethics accompanied by commentaries and recommendations. The European Code of Police Ethics together with the Guidebook on Democratic Policing (OSCE) and the Ten Basic Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement Officials (Amnesty International) can be considered as the main framework of international norms and standards for democratic policing.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: 10 Basic Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement Officials

These ‘10 Basic Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement Officials’ were prepared by Amnesty International in conjunction with police officials and experts from different countries. They are based on United Nations law enforcement, criminal justice and human rights standards. This document is intended to raise awareness amongst government officials, parliamentarians, journalists and non-governmental organizations of some fundamental standards which should be part of any police training and police practice.

DCAF (2009), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: International Police Standards guidebook on Democratic Policing

This toolkit contains international standards and principles of democratic policing. The guidebook is designed to assist OSCE staff dealing with police and law-enforcement issues as well as police practitioners and policy-makers working to develop and strengthen democratic policing. The guidebook serves as a reference to good policing practices and internationally adopted standards. This publication articulates the objectives of democratic police services and forces, the importance of their commitment to the rule of law, policing ethics, and human rights standards, the essential nature of police accountability to the law and to the society which they serve, and the need for their cooperation with the communities, recognizing that effective policing requires partnership with the communities being served. Furthermore, the guidebook elaborates on structural and managerial aspects within the police necessary in achieving and sustaining democratic policing.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Police Legislation Model: The Swedish Police Act

This booklet contains the Swedish police law in its original form as well as its articles reorganised by topic. This allows legislators to easily identify the specific topics that need to be covered in a police law and compare the different models.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Police Legislation Model: The Japanese Police Law and The Police Duties Execution Law

This booklet contains the Japanese police legislation in its original form as well as its articles reorganised by topic. This allows legislators to easily identify the specific topics that need to be covered in a police law and compare between different models of laws.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Police Legislation Model: Republic of South Africa Police Service Act 68, 1995

This booklet contains the South African Military Discipline Supplementary Measures Act in its original form as well as its articles reorganised by topic. This allows legislators to easily identify the specific subjects that need to be covered in such a law and compare the different models of laws.

DCAF (2011) Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Understanding Military Justice

The objective of this guide is to provide readers with essential information about the function and principles of military justice in a democratic society. The guide also focuses on policies and the role of different stakeholders in shaping legal and institutional frameworks for an effective and transparent system of military justice. The toolkit provides an overview of different military justice systems and outlines the challenges they face.

DCAF (2011) Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Principles Governing the Administration of Justice through Military Tribunals

This publication contains the 20 Principles Governing the Administration of Justice through Military Tribunals as outlined by the Commission on Human Rights.

DCAF (2015), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit:  International Standards for Financial Oversight in the Security Sector

This Toolkit provides readers with easy access to internationally adopted guiding principles, standards and best practices of financial oversight of security sector institutions. This toolkit allows readers to:

  • Access key international standards on budgeting and auditing in the security sector;
  • Compare existing practices and regulations in their countries with universally accepted budgeting and auditing principles;
  • Use the international standards as a basis for proposals to political leaders and members of parliament for reforming the prevailing financial oversight system in the security sectors of their countries;
  • Monitor and evaluate the performance of financial accountability institutions against international best practice.

 DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Understanding Intelligence Oversight

This guidebook provides an introduction on how democratic states govern their intelligence services. The guidebook demonstrates how states can govern their intelligence services in order to make sure that:

  • They contribute effectively to the security of the state and its population,
  • They are subject to democratic control,
  • They are accountable to the populations they serve, and
  • They respect the rule of law and human rights.

The guidebook provides short and simple answers to frequently asked questions on the activities of intelligence services, as well as the control and oversight of these organisations.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Compilation of Good Practices for Intelligence Agencies and their Oversight

The Compilation of Good Practices within the Security Sector Toolkit highlights the legal and institutional frameworks and measures that ensure respect for human rights by intelligence agencies while countering terrorism. The toolkit also identifies international standards for intelligence governance.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: The Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act

This booklet contains the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act in its original form as well as the provisions of this legislation which are reorganised by topic. This allows lawmakers to easily identify the specific subjects that should be covered by legislation on intelligence services and compare different laws according to particular topics.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: The Netherlands Intelligence and Security Services Act

This booklet contains the Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act in its original form as well as the provisions of this legislation which are reorganised by topic. This allows lawmakers to easily identify the specific subjects that should be covered by legislation on intelligence services and compare different laws according to particular topics.

DCAF (2011), Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: The Argentinian National Intelligence Law

This booklet contains The Argentinian National Intelligence Law, 2001 and the Regulation of the National Intelligence Act, 2002 in its original form as well as the provisions of this legislation which are reorganised by topic. This allows lawmakers to easily identify the specific subjects that should be covered by legislation on intelligence services and compare different laws according to particular topics.

Anti-Corruption and the Security Sector

Centre for Integrity in the Defence Sector is a great resource for Building Integrity in Defence topics. Based in Norway, this organisation specialises in a variety of knowledge products from courses to publications, which can be found on their website. The CIDS website resource section can be of special value to those seeking a quick overview of key knowledge sources on this subject.

The Toolkit offers practical guidance on how corruption can best be tackled in multiple domains. This toolkit draws together relevant instruments to support the establishment of healthy systems of governance, prevent corrupt practices, detect corruption, prosecute delinquencies and remedy the consequences of corruption.
For each policy area contributing to the fight against corruption, users are provided with:

  • Priority checklists
  • Implementation guidance with examples of good practices
  • Access to existing relevant standards and instruments, guides and manuals, case studies and reviews elaborated by international and civil society organisations

This is a tool that allows open and competitive bidding in defence procurement. The Gateway is held by the European Defence Agency. This tool contributes to the integrity of the decision making process in procurement by making it more transparent.

The tool enables Ministries of Defence in the subscribing Member States to publicise transparently their defence contract opportunities on a single European defence business portal; provides European defence-related companies an equal window of opportunity for accessing defence contract opportunities; encourages transparency and strengthens competition, laying the foundation for the development of the European Defence Equipment Market (EDEM).

The European Partners against Corruption (EPAC) is an independent, informal network bringing together more than 60 anti-corruption authorities and police oversight bodies from Council of Europe Member Countries. EPAC offers a medium for practitioners to share experiences, identify opportunities, and cooperate across national borders in developing common strategies and high professional standards.

The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is an inter-governmental body established in 1989 by the Ministers of its Member jurisdictions.  The objectives of the FATF are to set standards and promote effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures for combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other related threats to the integrity of the international financial system.  The FATF is therefore a “policy-making body” which works to generate the necessary political will to bring about national legislative and regulatory reforms in these areas.

The Group of States against Corruption (GRECO) was established in 1999 by the Council of Europe to monitor States’ compliance with the organisation’s anti-corruption standards. GRECO’s objective is to improve the capacity of its members to fight corruption by monitoring their compliance with Council of Europe anti-corruption standards through a dynamic process of mutual evaluation and peer pressure. The group helps to identify deficiencies in national anti-corruption policies, prompting the necessary legislative, institutional and practical reforms. GRECO also provides a platform for sharing best practices in the prevention and detection of corruption.

The Building Integrity (BI) Programme provides practical tools to help participating countries strengthen integrity, transparency and accountability and reduce the risk of corruption in the defence and security sectors. The programme promotes good practice, processes and methodologies, and provides countries with tailored support to make defence and security institutions more effective.

This is the web portal of NATO Building Integrity Programme. This programme provides practical tools to help participating countries strengthen integrity, transparency and accountability and reduce the risk of corruption in the defence and security sector. The programme promotes good practice, processes and methodologies, and provides countries with tailored support to make defence and security institutions more effective.

The BI Programme is tailored to meet national needs and requirements. It is demand-driven and participation is on a voluntary basis. The programme is open to all NATO Allies and partners (members of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the Mediterranean Dialogue, Istanbul Cooperation Initiative and partners across the globe). Requests from other countries are reviewed by NATO on a case-by-case basis.

The NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA) is a customer-funded agency, operating on a “no profit – no loss” basis. The NSPA is the executive body of the NATO Support and Procurement Organisation (NSPO), of which all 28 NATO nations are members. The NSPA brings together in a single organisation NATO’s logistics and procurement support activities, providing integrated multinational support solutions for its stakeholders. NSPA provides support to NATO by leveraging capabilities for new customers and geographic areas, and developing new capabilities in the areas of:

  • Support to Operations and Exercises,
  • Systems Procurement and Life-Cycle Management,
  • Fuel Management,
  • Strategic Transport and Storage,
  • Logistics Services and Project Management.

Partnering Against Corruption Initiative (PACI) is one of the Forum’s strongest cross-industry collaborative efforts and is creating a highly visible, agenda-setting platform by working with business leaders, international organizations and governments to address corruption, transparency and emerging-market risks. Driven by identified needs and interests of PACI Member companies, PACI undertakes initiatives to address industry, regional, country or global issues in anti-corruption and compliance.

SIPRI data bases can be used for a variety of purposes. Most of all they contribute to transparency and accountability in defence spending and can prove to be of great value in the planning and budgeting phases. They also provide a historical record that serves as a reference for analysing what works and what doesn’t in defence spending.

This programme aims to raise awareness of corruption in the defence sector and provide practical tools to reduce corruption risks. TI cooperates with governments and international organisations to enhance transparency in defence institutions; it also works with defence companies to raise industry standards in international defence contracting and develops centres and international networks of defence anti-corruption expertise.

TI’s Anti- Corruption Glossary is an excellent digital resource. The glossary is a collection of concepts related to the topic of corruption defined and presented in a brief, clear and user-friendly manner. Thanks to its neat communication technique TI’s Anti-Corruption Glossary can be an attractive and useful tool for a very wide audience.

Integrity Pacts are a tool for preventing corruption in public contracting. They are essentially an agreement between the government agency offering a contract and the companies bidding for it that they will abstain from bribery, collusion and other corrupt practices for the extent of the contract. To ensure accountability, Integrity Pacts also include a monitoring system typically led by civil society groups.

The Transparency and Accountability Initiative (T/A Initiative) is a donor collaborative working to expand the impact and scale of transparency, accountability and participation interventions.

The Open Government Partnership is a multilateral initiative that aims to secure concrete commitments from governments to promote transparency, empower citizens, fight corruption, and harness new technologies to strengthen governance.

UNODC is a global leader in the fight against illicit drugs and international crime. Established in 1997 through a merger between the United Nations Drug Control Programme and the Centre for International Crime Prevention, UNODC operates in all regions of the world through an extensive network of field offices. UNODC mainly provides:

  • Field-based technical cooperation projects to enhance the capacity of Member States to counteract illicit drugs, crime and terrorism
  • Research and analytical work to increase knowledge and understanding of drugs and crime issues and expand the evidence base for policy and operational decisions
  • Normative work to assist States in the ratification and implementation of the relevant international treaties, the development of domestic legislation on drugs, crime and terrorism, and the provision of secretariat and substantive services to the treaty-based and governing bodies.

This e-learning tool is a joint product of the UN Global Compact and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime. The tool uses six interactive learning modules to further the audience’s understanding of the UN Global Compact’s 10th principle against corruption and the UN Convention against Corruption as it applies to the private sector. The tool is targeted at everyone who acts on behalf of a company. Each module only lasts about five minutes, providing a quick and effective way of learning.

This is a web-based anti-corruption portal developed by the UNODC. This tool includes a legal library, online courses, a search engine specialised in anti-corruption literature, and other resources. The Legal Library on the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) provides a gateway to an electronic database of legislation and jurisprudence relevant to UNCAC from over 175 States systematized in accordance with the requirements of the Convention. The TRACK portal brings together legal and non-legal knowledge on anti-corruption and asset recovery enabling Member States, the anti-corruption community and the general public to access this information in a central location. An anti-corruption learning platform is also incorporated, providing a common space where analytical tools generated by partner organizations can be searched and accessed by users world-wide.

The SHERLOC knowledge management portal is a tool designed to facilitate the dissemination of information regarding the implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime and its protocols. In this portal, national examples of anti-corruption laws can be found, as well as tools for enhancing international cooperation in the fight against corruption and organised crime, along with other useful resources. The portal hosts a case law database, a database of legislation, a bibliographic database, and a directory of national competent authorities. The case law database contains jurisprudence on corruption, counterfeiting, cybercrime, drug offences, money laundering, obstruction of justice, participation in an organized criminal group, piracy, smuggling of migrants, trafficking in firearms, trafficking in cultural property, wildlife and forest crime, trafficking in persons and other crimes. The database of legislation is an electronic repository of laws relevant to the provisions of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC). The bibliographic database is an annotated bibliography containing a synopsis of key articles that are searchable by countries, research methods and keywords. The directory contains the contact information of competent national authorities authorized to receive, respond to and process requests of assistance for matters related to organised crime.

The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative (StAR) is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime that supports international efforts to end safe havens for corrupt funds. StAR works with developing countries and financial centres to prevent the laundering of the proceeds of corruption and to facilitate a more systematic and timely return of stolen assets.

StAR works with and helps bring together governments, regulatory authorities, donor agencies, financial institutions, and civil society organizations, fostering collective responsibility and action for deterrence, detection and recovery of stolen assets.

U4 offers relevant anti-corruption material, including applied research (featured under Themes), through an extensive web-based resource centre. U4 also runs in-country workshops and online courses on anti-corruption measures and strategies for partner agencies and their counterparts.

The purpose of the UN Standardized Reporting Instrument for Military Expenditures is to contribute to a broad effort to develop a set of specific measures for the purpose of facilitating the reduction of military expenditures. This tool also enhances transparency in military matters which is an essential element for building a climate of trust and confidence between States worldwide. The UN Standardized Reporting Instrument for Military Expenditures has also played an important role in acting as a model for similar reporting instruments, such as the one used by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

Canadian PPP Project Database is a tool developed by the Canadian Council for Public-Private Partnerships. This tool allows keeping track of current and past projects, their progress and status. Projects are organised by sector and geographical area. The database is an overview of the projects undertaken by Canada within the framework of public-private partnerships and contributes to transparency and facilitates public oversight.

Anti-Corruption Legislative Tools

The Mutual Legal Assistance Request Writer Tool (MLA Tool) has been developed by UNODC to assist States to draft requests with a view to facilitate and strengthen international cooperation.

The MLA tool:

  • Requires virtually no prior knowledge or experience with drafting mutual legal assistance requests
  • Helps to avoid incomplete requests for mutual legal assistance and therefore minimizes the risk of delay or refusal.
  • Is easily adjustable to any country’s substantive and procedural law
  • Enables the user to retrieve key information on treaties and national legislation
  • Features an integrated case-management tracking system for incoming and outgoing requests

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Anti-Corruption Publications & Other Tools

The APEC Code of Conduct for Business is a practical example of an Anti-Corruption Code of Conduct.

Born Hans, Wills Aidan, (2012), Overseeing Intelligence Services: a Toolkit

DCAF’s toolkit on overseeing intelligence services is a compendium of booklets (tools) that provides policy-relevant information on the establishment and consolidation of independent bodies to oversee state organisations involved in the collection, analysis, production and dissemination of intelligence in the national security domain.

CIDS (2014), Integrity Action Plan. A handbook for practitioners in defence establishments

This Handbook on Integrity Action Plans aims to help practitioners in defence establishments produce real and lasting change. The Handbook outlines how practitioners ought to assess corruption risks and address identified weaknesses and shortcomings. The publication emphasises the need for leadership and active support from the top in order to secure a clear mandate and how to tailor the chosen approach to the institutional context.

DCAF-NATO (2014), Building Integrity Self-Assessment Questionnaire and Peer Review Process

This Building-Integrity handbook contains a questionnaire, guidance on organising the process in-country, a sample note which can be used to brief the Defence Minister or Head of the Armed Forces on how to introduce the peer review process, and an outline of the format of the visit by the NATO review team. A separate Word document is available for recording the results of the questionnaire. While aimed primarily at Defence, the nation may apply the Integrity Self-Assessment Process to other Ministries and institutions in the security sector.

DCAF, Inter-Parliamentary Union (2003), Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector

Parliaments have a vital role to play in the good governance of the security sector and the provision of transparent and accountable public security. This handbook is divided into eight sections, each containing several chapters and can be read in two different ways. A complete reading of the Handbook will provide the most comprehensive understanding of security issues and the role of parliamentary oversight. However, it is also possible to make a selective reading of those sections and chapters which are of particular concern to the user. The index and various cross-references are designed for this purpose. Throughout the Handbook, there are separate boxes which clarify complex issues in the main text, provide examples of laws or regulations, and highlight practices of parliamentary oversight of the security sector in various countries. At the end of most chapters, there is a section called — “what you can do as a parliamentarian,” where concrete recommendations are given. However, these recommendations must be observed from the national context.

DCAF, UNDP (2008), Public Oversight of the Security Sector. A Handbook for Civil Society Organzations 

This Handbook provides structured guidance for civil society organisations (CSOs) on the role they can play in democratic security sector oversight. Although many CSOs have facilitated security sector reform processes in transition and post-conflict states, much of their potential remains untapped. Similarly, the longer term role CSOs play in maintaining a democratically-managed security sector is sometimes under-emphasised in the developed and developing worlds. The Handbook is designed primarily for civil society and non-governmental organisations. The publication is also relevant to democratic institutions, democratic representatives, policymakers, SSR practitioners, researchers, security sector institutions, the media, and international organisations partnering with CSOs on democratic security governance issues.

European Partners against Corruption, European Contact Point Network against Corruption (2011), Anti-Corruption Authority Standards

This document lists ten guiding principles and parameters on the notion of independence of Anti-Corruption bodies. These principles and standards are intended to be aspirational for, rather than legally binding on, organisations. They recognise that there are many different approaches across the world and are, thus, intended to be responsive to the legal and policy frameworks established in individual countries and organisations.

Hans Born, Ian Leigh (2005), Making Intelligence Accountable: Legal Standards and Practice for Oversight of Intelligence Agencies

This publication classifies and evaluates the legal standards that currently exist regarding the democratic accountability of intelligence services. The publication also identifies and recommends best practices applicable to both transition countries and well-established democracies.

The ICC Rules on Combating Corruption constitute the cornerstone of ICC’s anti-corruption work, serving both as a tool for self-regulation by business and as a roadmap for governments in their efforts to fight extortion and bribery.

The United Nations Convention against Corruption was adopted by the General Assembly by its resolution 58/4 of 31 October 2003. The objective of the legislative guide is to assist States seeking to ratify and implement the Convention by identifying legislative requirements, issues arising from those requirements and various options available to States as they develop and draft the necessary legislation.

NATO Code of Conduct is intended to be read in the context of the NATO Civilian Personnel Regulations, other personnel policies, or applicable national military regulations.

NATO-DCAF, (2010). Building Integrity and Reducing Corruption in Defence. A Compendium of Best Practices

This compendium is the product of cooperation between Transparency International UK, the NATO Program for Peace team, and DCAF. The compendium focuses on concepts and tools which ensure good practices in defence management and policy through “building integrity”. Designed primarily as an introduction and reference tool, defence personnel, civilians in the defence sphere, democratic institutions, and civil society will also find materials on building integrity and anti-corruption measures which are relevant to their own security governance activities.

This handbook is a reference guide on available legal tools, the latest legislative and policy trends, and pertinent measures and practices to prevent and suppress corruption. The handbook is aimed at raising awareness of the range of international instruments available to national policymakers and anti-corruption practitioners.

These guidelines provide OSCE staff with advice on supporting cross-dimensional approaches to security sector governance and reform (SSG/R). The purpose of such approaches is to promote a move away from the kind of fragmented support which has a limited impact and towards the practice of building on cross-dimensional synergies. This is done in order to provide coherent and effective support for the pursuit of common strategic SSG/R objectives. While the guidelines are designed for the use of OSCE staff, they may also be of relevance to other national and international actors seeking to enhance their support in the field of SSG/R.

This is a reference tool for member and non-member countries to use in order to increase the degree of budget transparency in their respective countries. The Best Practices are organised around specific reports for presentational reasons only. Different countries will have different reporting regimes and may have different areas of emphasis for transparency. This publication is based on different member-countries’ experiences.

OECD, UNODC, The World Bank, (2013), Anti-corruption ethics and compliance Handbook for Business

The Handbook has been developed to serve as a useful, practical tool for companies seeking compliance advice in one, easy-to-reference publication. The publication is divided into three sections. The first section provides an overview of the international anti-corruption framework, within which companies conducting international business must operate. The second section provides a brief introduction to how companies can assess their risk in order to begin developing an effective anti-corruption ethics and compliance programme. The third and most significant section brings together major business guidance instruments.

OECD (2010), Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance

This Good Practice Guidance is addressed to companies for establishing and ensuring the effectiveness of internal controls, ethics, and compliance programmes or measures for preventing and detecting the bribery of foreign public officials in their international business transactions. Guidelines are also addressed to business organisations and professional associations which play an essential role in assisting companies in these efforts. The publication recognises that to be effective, such programmes, or measures, should be interconnected with a company’s overall compliance framework. This publication is intended to serve as non-legally binding guidance to companies in establishing effective internal controls, ethics, and compliance programmes or measures for preventing and detecting foreign bribery.

OECD (2008), OECD Glossaries. Corruption. A glossary of international standards in criminal law

This Glossary explains the key elements required to classify corruption as a criminal act, according to three major international conventions: the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions; the Council of Europe’s Criminal Law Convention on Corruption; the United Nation’s Convention against Corruption. The specific purpose of this Glossary is to assist the countries of the OECD Anti-Corruption Network for Eastern Europe and Central Asia in their efforts to reform national anti-corruption criminal legislation according to the requirements of the above-mentioned conventions. This tool seeks to remedy the lack of knowledge about international law and recent developments in international treaties that some national legislators may face. This glossary should be useful for legal practitioners in any country that aims to strengthen international cooperation and domestic rules to fight corruption.

The OECD Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying help decision-makers address concerns raised by lobbying practices. These are the only international principles addressing concerns raised by lobbying and providing guidance on how to meet expectations of transparency and accountability in the public decision-making process. They are part of the OECD strategy for a stronger, fairer and cleaner economy.

The Istanbul Anti-corruption Action Plan is a sub-regional peer review programme launched in 2003 in the framework of the Anti-Corruption Network. The programme supports anti-corruption reforms through country reviews and continuous monitoring of implementation of recommendations, which promote the UN Convention against Corruption and other international standards and best practice. This programme:

  • reviews the legal and institutional frameworks for fighting corruption and makes recommendations
  • monitors progress in implementing the recommendations

The results are discussed at regional meetings and published as country and progress reports.

The Norwegian Ministry of Defence (2011), Ethical guidelines for contact with business and industry sector

“Ethical Guidelines for Contact with Business and Industry in the Defence Sector” was first issued by the Ministry of Defence in April 2007. This revised edition of these guidelines aims to clarify and simplify the rules that apply. The revision is part of the development of the Ministry of Defence’s Action Plan for Attitudes, Ethics and Leadership (AEL).

The Norwegian Ministry of Defence (2010), Action Plan on Attitudes, Ethics and Leadership

The Norwegian defence sector’s employees face ethical and attitudinal challenges and dilemmas every day: in military operations, in contact and collaborations with business and other private and public actors, in research activities, or in day-to-day work. Therefore, leaders and employees must always be equipped to make good decisions. Latter is the objective of this publication which provides an action plan on attitudes, ethics and leadership.

The Norwegian Ministry of Defence (2013), Core Values of Norway’s Defence Sector

The Norwegian defence sector promotes certain general values of openness, broad-mindedness, respect, responsibility, and courage. The sector encompasses the Ministry of Defence and four administratively subordinate agencies: the Norwegian Armed Forces, the Norwegian Defence Estates Agency, the Norwegian National Security Authority, and the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment. All bodies of the Norwegian Ministry of Defence must adhere to the values platform outlined in this publication.

The Business Principles for Countering Bribery were originally developed through an extensive multi-stakeholder process involving companies, non-governmental organisations and trade unions, as a tool to assist enterprises to develop effective approaches to countering bribery in all aspects of their activities. The Business Principles aim to provide a framework that can assist enterprises in developing, benchmarking or strengthening their anti-bribery programmes. The Business Principles reflect a high, yet achievable standard of anti-bribery practice. They apply to the bribery of public officials as well as private-to-private transactions.

The present Technical Guide primarily focuses on the provision to anti-corruption practitioners and authorities of relevant technical advice, tools and examples of good practices to make the articles of the Convention operational. The Technical Guide attempts to highlight policy issues, institutional aspects and operational frameworks related to the full and effective implementation of the provisions of the Convention. The objective of the Guide is to lay out a range of policy options and considerations that each State Party needs, or may wish, to take into account in national efforts geared towards implementation of the Convention. Thus, the Guide intends only to raise and highlight issues pertinent to such implementation and by no means purports to be used as a complete and exhaustive counselling material for national policymakers, especially in view of the different legal systems and traditions and the varying levels of institutional capacity among States Parties.

UN Inter-Agency SSR Task Force, Security Sector Reform Integrated Technical Guidance Notes

The UN SSR Integrated Technical Guidance Notes are a useful tool for anyone interested in Security Sector Reform and Democratic Security Sector Governance. The purpose of the Integrated Technical Guidance Notes (ITGNs) is therefore to foster a “One United Nations” approach to SSR by providing a common framework to guide United Nations support to nationally led SSR efforts.

The United Nations Handbook on Practical Anti-Corruption Measures for Prosecutors and Investigators is part of a larger package of materials intended to provide information and resource materials for countries developing and implementing anti-corruption strategies at all levels, as well as for other elements of civil society with an interest in combating corruption.

The United Nations Guide on Anti-Corruption Policies, which contains a general outline of the nature and scope of the problem of corruption and a description of the major elements of anti-corruption policies, is suitable for use by political officials and senior policy-makers.

The United Nations Anti-Corruption Toolkit contains a detailed set of specific Tools intended for use by officials called upon to elaborate elements of a national anti-corruption strategy and to assemble these into an overall strategic framework, as well as by officials called upon to develop and implement each specific element. Case Studies, setting out practical examples intended to illustrate the use of individual tools and combinations of tools in actual practice are included in the Toolkit. They provide information about the conditions under which a particular programme will or will not work and how various tools can be adapted or modified to suit the circumstances in which they are likely to be used.

The Compendium of International Legal Instruments on Corruption compiles for reference all the major relevant global and regional international treaties, agreements, resolutions and other instruments. These include legally binding obligations, as well as some “soft-law” or normative instruments intended to serve as non-binding standards.

The purpose of this Guide is to support and inform those who are tasked with reforming and strengthening the justice systems of their countries. The Resource Guide also aims to provide development partners, international organizations, and other providers of technical assistance who deliver support to this process.

This paper provides a practical overview of how an agency may work with the media to win the support of the public in the fight against corruption. The paper is intended as a “how-to” guide to help agencies understand how to control the way they present themselves to the public, how to frame their agencies’ work, and how to develop allies in the press and the community at large. Overall, this paper is designed to help anti-corruption agencies become more effective in fighting corruption.

This Guidebook serves as a reference material for governments, international organizations, the private sector, academia and civil society, by providing an overview of good practices in ensuring compliance with article 9 of UNCAC, which requires establishing appropriate systems of public procurement, as well as appropriate systems in the management of public finances.

The objectives of GAIN are to integrate anti-corruption solutions in service delivery to contribute to Millennium Development Goals acceleration and post-2015 development goals; to strengthen state/institutional capacity to implement UNCAC and prevent corruption; to mitigate corruption risks in climate finance and natural resource management; to enhance civic engagement, youth and women’s empowerment for increased transparency and accountability at national and local levels; and improve results-based management and institutional effectiveness on anti-corruption.

The UN Convention Against Corruption Self-Assessment process is an opportunity to engage in national dialogue on anti-corruption policies and programmes and stimulate reforms to curb corruption. This practical Guidance Note provides a methodology for national stakeholders on how to conduct a comprehensive and participatory Self-Assessment of UNCAC implementation.

This paper offers practical guidance to practitioners who design, implement, and disseminate evaluations and research on anti-corruption. A range of quantitative and qualitative methods can be used to answer operational questions on the impact of anti-corruption interventions. Although some methods can produce stronger evidence than others for a specific evaluation, there are tradeoffs between rigour and costs and between aspiration and feasibility. Donors should let the evaluation question, programme attributes, and availability of data determine the most appropriate methods for a given study. With careful planning and adequate resources, donors can use many of the methods presented in this paper. This should give more reliable results and produce needed knowledge on what works in anti-corruption, laying the basis for more effective anti-corruption initiatives. U4 is a web-based resource centre for development practitioners who wish to effectively address corruption challenges in their work.

The Summary of World Bank Group Integrity Compliance Guidelines incorporates standards, principles, and components commonly recognized by many institutions and entities as good governance and anti-fraud and corruption practices. Although they are directed principally at sanctioned “parties,” others are encouraged to consider their appropriateness for adoption. They are not intended to be all-inclusive, exclusive or prescriptive; rather a party’s adoption of these Guidelines, or variants thereof, should be determined based on that party’s own circumstances.

Procurement

Centre for Security Governance (2016), The Foundation for Defence Procurement Reform in Ukraine

The focus of this paper is to provide a governance framework for defence procurement reform in Ukraine. The three core elements comprising the foundation for defence procurement reform are the development of a defence industry strategy, the selection of a defence procurement strategy, and the reform of the defence industrial base. The paper argues that Ukraine’s capital equipment program is central to a defence strategy and reform of both the defence industrial base and capital equipment procurement process facilitate strategy execution.

DCAF (2009), Defence Management

This publication focuses on practical aspects of democratic defence management through the eyes of practitioners. Outlining in simple terms the key issues defence professionals must address to ensure good governance of the defence sector from within the defence establishment, the book provides an introduction to these issues for new defence professionals in transition democracies. The objective is to explain principles and approaches to formulating and implementing security and defence policies, presenting results of policy-related research, and providing examples of good practice in transforming and managing security sector organisations, organisational processes and resources. Intended audience includes practitioners from the legislative and executive branches of government, security and defence professionals and civil society organisations engaged in making security and defence organisations more transparent, accountable, effective and efficient.

DCAF (2015), Financial Oversight of the Security Sector a Toolkit for Trainers

This Toolkit is designed for financial oversight practitioners who wish to:

  • Gain access to best international practices in financial oversight of the security sector
  • Improve their professional ability to financially oversee security sector institutions
  • Acquire a more proactive attitude towards conducting thorough financial oversight activities of security sector institutions
  • Assert their authority in scrutinizing budgets and financial operations conducted by security sector institutions.

This is a tool that allows open and competitive bidding in defence procurement. The gateway is held by the European Defence Agency. This tool contributes to the integrity of the decision making process in procurement by making it more transparent.

The tool enables Ministries of Defence in the subscribing Member States to publicise transparently their defence contract opportunities on a single European defence business portal; provides European defence-related companies an equal window of opportunity for accessing defence contract opportunities; encourages transparency and strengthens competition, laying the foundation for the development of the European Defence Equipment Market (EDEM).

NATO-DCAF (2010), Building Integrity and Reducing Corruption in Defence. A Compendium of Best Practices

This compendium is the product of cooperation between Transparency International UK, the NATO Program for Peace team, and DCAF. The compendium focuses on concepts and tools which ensure good practices in defence management and policy through “building integrity”. Designed primarily as an introduction and reference tool, defence personnel, civilians in the defence sphere, democratic institutions, and civil society will also find materials on building integrity and anti-corruption measures which are relevant to their own security governance activities.

The NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA) is a customer-funded agency, operating on a “no profit – no loss” basis. The NSPA is the executive body of the NATO Support and Procurement Organisation (NSPO), of which all 28 NATO nations are members. The NSPA brings together in a single organisation NATO’s logistics and procurement support activities, providing integrated multinational support solutions for its stakeholders. NSPA provides support to NATO by leveraging capabilities for new customers and geographic areas, and developing new capabilities in the areas of:

  • Support to Operations and Exercises,
  • Systems Procurement and Life-Cycle Management,
  • Fuel Management,
  • Strategic Transport and Storage,
  • Logistics Services and Project Management.

This is a reference tool for member and non-member countries to use in order to increase the degree of budget transparency in their respective countries. The Best Practices are organised around specific reports for presentational reasons only. Different countries will have different reporting regimes and may have different areas of emphasis for transparency. This publication is based on different member-countries’ experiences.

SIPRI data bases can be used for a variety of purposes. Most of all they contribute to transparency and accountability in defence spending and can prove to be of great value in the planning and budgeting phases. They also provide a historical record that serves as a reference for analysing what works and what doesn’t in defence spending.

This programme aims to raise awareness of corruption in the defence sector and provide practical tools to reduce corruption risks. TI cooperates with governments and international organisations to enhance transparency in defence institutions; it also works with defence companies to raise industry standards in international defence contracting and develops centres and international networks of defence anti-corruption expertise.

This Guidebook serves as a reference material for governments, international organizations, the private sector, academia and civil society, by providing an overview of good practices in ensuring compliance with article 9 of UNCAC, which requires establishing appropriate systems of public procurement, as well as appropriate systems in the management of public finances.

The purpose of the UN Standardized Reporting Instrument for Military Expenditures is to contribute to a broad effort to develop a set of specific measures for the purpose of facilitating the reduction of military expenditures. This tool also enhances transparency in military matters which is an essential element for building a climate of trust and confidence between States worldwide. The UN Standardized Reporting Instrument for Military Expenditures has also played an important role in acting as a model for similar reporting instruments, such as the one used by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

Other Resources - Ukraine

The Ukraine Reform Monitor provides objective, rigorous assessments of the Ukrainian reform effort via a series of regular memos and briefings prepared by a team of scholars based inside Ukraine.

Also see: Ukraine Reform Monitor 2015

The Ukraine Forum is a platform providing insight on internal Ukrainian dynamics in key policy areas.

A list of legislation and legislative tools relevant to National Human Rights Institutions in Ukraine can be found here.

Reforms.in.ua portal is a platform for providing accountability and transparency of the development and implementation of reforms in Ukraine. The portal is created for involvement of civil society in the reforms development as well as monitoring and control of their implementation.

Also see: Reforms Progress Monitoring Report Q1. 2016.

Think Tanks & International Organisations

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