Ukraine

Democratic Security Sector Governance

Anti-Corruption or Counter-Corruption measures consist of three main dimensions:anti corruption 1

  • Integrity
  • Transparency
  • Accountability

According to CIDS’s Integrity Action Plan, counter-corruption measures include preventive actions that reduce the incentives and opportunities for corruption and other unethical behaviour to occur. They can also include pro-active enforcement of rules and regulations. That is: controlling, overseeing, and investigating suspected corrupt activities and individuals as well as prosecuting later via a legal authority.

What is anti/counter-corruption?

Countering corruption and Building Integrity (BI) are two sides of the same coin. While “Counter-corruption” or “Anti-corruption” concepts tend to be perceived in a negative light, “Building integrity” suggests a more positive dimension of what is, essentially, the same process. Integrity, according to CIDS, is the quality of being guided by strong principles, or being fully operational, intact and internally consistent in the application of agreed-upon principles and standards. Building integrity measures are, therefore, designed to enhance this quality. Counter-corruption measures, as mentioned before, include both positive and negative enforcement procedures, in other words, preventive and corrective dimensions. These are also found in BI programmes.

Why is it important?

Corruption is detrimental to the development, good governance, and social well-being of a country. Corruption in the security sector is especially grave since this sector, generally, represents a major part of a state’s budget. This means that other essential sectors, such as education and health, are left with fewer, if any, much needed resources. The effects of security sector corruption can result in insecurity, regional instability, and fuel conflicts. Counter-corruption efforts should, therefore, be undertaken on an international scale and should profit from regional and international cooperation. Moreover, successful Counter-corruption programmes are built and implemented from a holistic point of view and within a broader, Good Governance framework. Any country aspiring to have a functional, effective, and efficient security sector ought to have a BI/Counter-corruption programme in place.

How does it work?

There is a wide range of measures that can be put into practice in order to prevent and counter corruption. They can be coercive, voluntary, preventive, and corrective. As a first step to any BI/Counter-corruption programme, a thorough assessment of risk-areas is needed. DCAF, NATO, and CIDS, among others, have issued self-assessment questionnaires, guides, tools, and a variety of other knowledge-products for that purpose. These organisations also provide guidance and training for BI and Anti-Corruption programmes and policies creation and implementation. Following the risk-assessment phase, an action plan, or programme should be created. This programme should be adapted to the needs and context of a particular case. However, even if BI/Counter-corruption programmes should be considered on a case-by-case basis, a checklist of work areas, techniques, methods, and best practices can be of general use:anti corruption 2

  • Rule of law
  • Effective Legal framework
  • Efficient and independent judiciary institutions
  • Clear and concise regulations
  • Education and training focused on BI
  • Codes of Conduct and Ethical Guidelines
  • Merit and competition-based recruitment and promotion systems
  • Transparency (budgets, salaries, procurement, acquisition, disclosure of assets)
  • Planning and budgeting systems in accordance with national needs and objectives (National Security Strategy)
  • Integrity pacts
  • Accountability (effective, proportionate and dissuasive sanctions)
  • Oversight mechanisms (internal and external)
  • Audit function
  • Ombudsman
  • Monitoring mechanisms
  • Whistle-blower mechanisms and protection

Who is involved in anti-corruption measures?

Generally, anti-corruption measures are part of a broader, Good Governance policy and involve a wide range of actors. Given that building integrity measures focus greatly on the behavioural factor, actors involved in the process range from soldier/citizen all the way to governmental, regional, and international organisations. Individuals, such as citizens, soldiers, whistle-blowers, leaders, inspectors, ombudsman, etc., are all responsible for following codes of conduct and acting in a way that is compatible with integrity standards. Institutions, such as Parliaments, Government agencies and Ministries, Ombuds, Audit and Oversight institutions, etc., are responsible for elaborating, implementing and overseeing the fulfilment of policies, plans, programmes, laws and regulations. National bodies, such as Government, Military, Private entities involved in procurement and other procedures, the Media, Academia and Civil Society Organisations are also responsible for the implementation of integrity values, oversight and scrutiny of processes, and results. Finally, international entities, such as intergovernmental and international organisations, can provide guidance and best practices.

Key Sources

Centre for Integrity in the Defence Sector. Criteria for good governance in the defence sector. International standards and principles (2015)

Centre for Integrity in the Defence Sector. Integrity Action Plan. A handbook for practitioners in defence establishments (2014)

CIDS (2015) Guides to Good Governance: Professionalism and integrity in the public service. No 1.

DCAF(2009), Backgrounder. Security Sector Governance and Reform. See new Backgrounder series here.

DCAF (2015), Parliamentary Brief: Building integrity in Defence.

NATO-DCAF, (2010). Building Integrity and Reducing Corruption in Defence. A Compendium of Best Practices.

Transparency International (2011). Building Integrity and Countering Corruption In Defence and Security. 20 Practical Reforms.

Additional sources

Centre for Integrity in the Defence Sector: Guides to Good Governance

DCAF – UNDP (2008) Public Oversight of the Security Sector. A Handbook for Civil Society Organizations.

NATO (2015), Building Integrity Self-Assessment Questionnaire and Peer Review Process. A diagnostic tool for national defence establishments.

NATO (2012) Building Integrity Programme

NATO-DCAF (2009). Integrity Self-Assessment Process: A Diagnostic Tool for National Defence Establishments.

 

 

Core Values of Norway’s Defence Sector

The Norwegian defence sector promotes certain general values of openness, broadmindedness, respect, responsibility, and courage. The sector encompasses the Ministry of Defence and four administratively subordinate agencies: the Norwegian Armed Forces, … read more

Guidebook on Anti-Corruption in Public Procurement and the Management of Public Finances

This Guidebook serves as a reference material for governments, international organizations, the private sector, academia and civil society, by providing an overview of good practices in ensuring compliance with article 9 of UNCAC, which requires establ … read more

Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying

The OECD Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying help decision-makers address concerns raised by lobbying practices. These are the only international principles addressing concerns raised by lobbying and providing guidance on how to meet … read more

Anti-Corruption Ethics and Compliance Handbook for Business

The Handbook has been developed to serve as a useful, practical tool for companies seeking compliance advice in one, easy-to-reference publication. The Handbook is divided into three sections. The first section provides an overview of the international … read more

Training Manual on Policing Urban Space

The Training Manual on Policing Urban Space has been designed to assist police working in urban areas within low and middle-income countries to develop crime-prevention knowledge and skills. The Manual focuses on the importance of prevention and multi- … read more

Building Integrity: Process and Impact Montenegro

The BI Programme is a NATO-led, capacity-building programme which provides practical tools to help nations strengthen integrity, transparency, and accountability and reduce the risk of corruption in the defence and security sectors.  The toolkit includ … read more

Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector

This paper represents a further addition to the series of publications on issues in parliamentary practice from the Office for Promotion of Parliamentary Democracy (OPPD). The main objective of this publication is to provide an overview of the main iss … read more

Toolkit on Police Integrity

The Toolkit on Police Integrity aims to assist police services in designing effective measures to curb police corruption, increase their ability to fight crime, improve public security, and strengthen the rule of law and public trust in the police. The … read more

Parliamentary Brief on Building Integrity in Defence

This Parliamentary Brief provides practitioners with a concise introduction in to the main concepts, strategies, and good practices in building integrity and dealing with corruption risks in the defence establishment.

Overseeing Intelligence Services Toolkit

DCAF’s toolkit on overseeing intelligence services is a compendium of booklets (tools) that provides policy-relevant information on the establishment and consolidation of independent bodies to oversee state organisations involved in the collection, ana … read more

The Role of Good Governance in the Promotion of Human Rights

The concepts of good governance and human rights are mutually reinforcing. Human rights principles provide a set of values to guide the work of governments and other political and social actors. They also provide a set of performance standards against … read more

Due Diligence and Corruption Risk in Defence Industry Offset Programmes

This report reviews the corruption risk associated with defence offset programmes, a large but opaque part of the defence industrial landscape. The review enquires into the depth and quality of current, due-diligence practices in offset programmes by d … read more

Ombuds Institutions for the Armed Forces: A Handbook

This handbook examines Ombuds institutions for the armed forces and their role in the promotion and protection of human rights as well as in the prevention of maladministration. Developed in cooperation with the International Conference of Ombuds Insti … read more

Challenges Facing Arms Export Control in Ukraine and the Russian Federation

This study analyses a number of highly topical issues on how to improve national arms export control systems; what measures and structural reforms are needed to strengthen international controls over the export of sensitive products globally.

Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Police Legislation Model: The Japanese Police Law and The Police Duties Execution Law

This booklet contains the Japanese police legislation in its original form as well as its articles reorganised by topic. This allows legislators to easily identify the specific topics that need to be covered in a police law and compare between differen … read more

Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Police Legislation Model: The Swedish Police Act

This booklet contains the Swedish police law in its original form as well as its articles reorganised by topic. This allows legislators to easily identify the specific topics that need to be covered in a police law and compare the different models.

Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: The European Code of Police Ethics

This toolkit contains the European Code of Police Ethics accompanied by commentaries and recommendations. The European Code of Police Ethics together with the Guidebook on Democratic Policing (OSCE) and the Ten Basic Human Rights Standards for Law Enfo … read more

Anti-Corruption Authority Standards

This document lists ten guiding principles and parameters on the notion of independence of Anti-Corruption bodies. These principles and standards are intended to be aspirational for, rather than legally binding on, organisations. They recognise that th … read more

Legislating for the Security Sector Toolkit: Compilation of Good Practices for Intelligence Agencies and their Oversight

The Compilation of Good Practices within the Security Sector Toolkit highlights the legal and institutional frameworks and measures that ensure respect for human rights by intelligence agencies while countering terrorism. The toolkit also identifies in … read more

Guidance Note: UNCAC Self-Assessments: Going Beyond the Minimum

The UN Convention Against Corruption Self-Assessment process is an opportunity to engage in national dialogue on anti-corruption policies and programmes and stimulate reforms to curb corruption. This practical Guidance Note provides a methodology for n … read more

Photo credit: Ivan Bandura (Flickr)

© Copyright 2022, All Rights Reserved

Web Development by Activate Media